When Nguyen Hoang (1524-1613), with his strategic vision and cautious measures, was in the process of digging up the land of Dang Trong in 1558, he prepared long-term steps for the construction and development of a long-term polity. In order to win the hearts and also to keep the peace of the regime, Nguyen Hoang tried: "patting the people’s army, collecting with diligence, taxing lightly, people are admired, then often called Lord Fairy. The real thing is to build the foundation from there. "
The time that Nguyen Hoang built and consolidated the Cochinchinese regime was also the flourishing period of the Asian and world trading system. This is the "golden age" for the marine economy of many regional countries. To develop, Dang Trong has rapidly integrated with the common development model of most East Asian countries. Based on the strength of the industrial economy, as a necessity, Lord Nguyen restored the status of Chiêm Cảng. The name Faifo (Hoi An – Hoi An) has become the familiar address of many regional and international traders. But not only Hoi An, a traditional port system of the central region from the Champa era was restored in the new economic and political context. In particular, trade ports such as Thanh Ha (Hue) in the north and Salt Water (Binh Dinh) in the south are both developed independently within the system and have a close relationship with Hoi An. In fact, with the accession, supported by the production and mining centers, the central ports have created a linkage system with the coordinating role of Hoi An. Hoi An is the central port of Cochinchina and a major trading port of Dang Trong which has been internationalized.


Hoi An Ancient Town is a popular tourist destination thanks to its ancient, peaceful location, which preserves the status quo of an ancient architectural complex of many buildings.
Hoi An Ancient Town is a popular tourist destination thanks to its ancient, peaceful location, which preserves the status quo of an ancient architectural complex of many buildings.
Due to the timely and consistent policies of the people, the Cochinchinese government has been able to concentrate its power, maintain social stability and promote the development of the commodity economy. These are the endogenous factors leading to the emergence of a series of urban and port towns, in which typical port city of Hoi An. From a deteriorating Champa, Hoi An quickly recovered and became a major trade center in Southeast Asia. Since the end of the 16th century, Hoi An has become the most important economic center of entrepôts of Cochinchina and one of the key international ports in East Asia trade. This port has become a "Interregional Center" with Goa (India), Ayutthaya (Siam), Malacca (Malaysia), Batavia (Indonesia), Luzon (Philippines) …. Loan, Macao, Xiamen (China), Deshima (Japan), Pusan ​​(Korea) to create a relatively tight and relatively integrated trading system in Asia.

In the diverse relations of Cochinchina, merchants and Portuguese missionaries arrived in Cochinchina as soon as possible. In 1515 Portuguese merchant ships arrived in Faifo and from 1540 regularly docked at this port. By the beginning of the 17th century, not only Asian merchants, most European trade powers such as Portugal, Spain, Holland, England … all came to Hoi An trade. With Asian countries, Chinese merchants and Japanese merchants received favorable conditions for trade with the Cochinchinese regime. It can be said never in the history of trade in Vietnam, foreign trade has expanded, diversified and flourished in the period of the 16th and 17th centuries. Most of the economic powers of the time came to establish relations, trade with Cochinchina.
As a "marine institution", to thoroughly promote the tradition of marine exploitation, trade development and cultural exchange on the sea, the Dang Trong government soon realized that foreign trade could only survive development in the system. Thus, along with the strengthening of craft production centers, raw materials exploitation, Nguyen lords also have many measures to protect and expand the operation of trading ports. After 1672, when the Trinh – Nguyen conflict ended, the lord Nguyen pushed up the exploitation of the southern region, expanding the impact on the delta areas of the Dong Nai River and finally the Mekong Delta. Thanks to that, in the eighteenth century with Thanh Ha, Hoi An, Salt Water …, ports such as Dong Nai, Saigon, Ha Tien have become important trading port of Dang Trong. Through the operation of the ports, "the Lord has made great profits in dealing with the taxation of goods as well as the customs duties he has set out and the whole country has made many profitable gains."
With Asian merchants, which have had close ties with the Central trade since the Champa period, the Chinese, Siamese, Chan Lap, Patani, Java, Manila and Japan frequented Hoi An and Central Vietnam ports of commerce. According to Thomas Bowyear’s observation, recorded by A.Lamb, in the year 1695 there are about 10 to 12 Chinese merchant ships to Hoi An trade But when the Edo regime (1600-1868) restricted Chinese merchant ships to Japan, in the years (1740-1750), the number of Chinese merchant ships to Cochinchina increased each year to about 80.

In the work of Oost-Indische Compagnie en Quinam (Dutch East India Company), the Dutch businessman WJM Buch said: "The reason why so many merchants from China come to Quang Nam is that they can Find here a trading center with countries and neighborhoods. Peppers are transported here from Palembang, Pahang and other areas; camomiles from Borneo, wines, ivory, … raw porcelain and other goods. With what remains, they can buy more pepper, ivory, spice powder, cardamom of Quang Nam etc. So their boat to China is usually full. "

Not only in trade in estuarine ports and in offshore islands, the Cochinchinese government has also implemented a broad sea-level policy. Lord Nguyen set up ships to the islands as far as Hoang Sa, Truong Sa … to exploit the product and gradually assert sovereignty. In his book, Pham Ngoc Dien, the scholar Le Quy Don has also written articles detailing the tasks and activities of Hoang Sa. Thus, from the economic point of view, the Nguyen lords are becoming more and more aware of the economic and sovereign resources in the South China Sea. Hoang Sa (Paracels) was formed to fulfill the obligations of the State. Throughout the process of exploiting and establishing sovereignty over the Spratly and Paracel Islands, the Cochinchina regime has no dispute over economic interests and sovereignty with any country. Later, in order to confirm the scope of influence, the Cochinchinese government expanded its operation area to Conlou Island and Ha Tien Islands, but still managed the Hoang Sa cum.
History shows that, during the formation, the development of trade in Cochinchina as well as Hoi An international port, although Hoi An (Faifo) has always been the destination of many domestic, regional and western merchants. But there was no major economic dispute or conflict. This shows the power and capacity of managing, organizing and managing the external economic activities of the Cochinchinese government as well as the Quang Nam province. A policy of openness, multilateralisation and strict enforcement of tariffs … brought real strength to Nguyen. Over the past two centuries, though, faced with political pressure from many sides and learned how to smuggle and tax the foreigners, the Cochinchina regime exercised its power with a strong sense of protection and complete protection of national sovereignty.



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